Fear in foreign influence in politics in Nepal is based on the idea of the text, Inside Nepal of Amar Bhushan. It is a real story of RAW and its role for the blocked of India in Nepal and the various roles played for the political change in Nepal. The article has drawn various Delhi agreements with political parties and even The Late King, Tribhuwan and other historical treaties to relate the direct and indirect role of RAW in Nepal. The fear of external political influence in Nepal is going beyond the Divya Upadesh of Prithivi Narayan Shah. It teaches us how to do the politics diplomatically and to be free from fear unnecessarily. This article reflects the historical ups and down in relation to India and Nepal.
Fear has no boundary. It is found everywhere in any countries in the world. Both powerful and powerless nations do have the fear but the fear of powerful nations differs from the powerless nations. Powerful nations do have the direct influence in politics in the powerless nations. It is natural one throughout the globe. Powerful nations are scared of other powerful nations and they attempt to balance their power with their negotiation but powerful nations do the micro-management in the powerless nations through the influence of politics. So, the powerless nations like Nepal must be aware of such political influence. If the powerless nations do not become alert, then the powerful nations swallow the powerless nations and diminish the nationality as the sovereign state" Sikkim" lost its sovereignty and nationality and became the one the states of India. So the positive fear is essential to keep in the minds of the public and the rulers of the powerless states.
Fear in Politics in Nepal
Nepal is a mountainous nation known as the nation of Himalaya in the world. It is a country situated in between the superpower nations – India and China. So, the late king, Prithivi Narayan Shah – the founder of Nepal used the right term "yam" to express the complexity of Nepal as he said "Nepal is just like a yam in between two large stones". India and China are two large nations functioning like two large stones to keep Nepal in its proper size and shape. Nepal has to remain in its limitation maintaining the balanced relationship between these two great nations.
It has become a great challenge to balance the political power of the most powerful nations- China and India. Nepalese political leaders need to understand the geo-politics of Nepal in the world. If the leaders do not handle the politics skillfully, Nepal can become the central zone of conflict between China and America. If it becomes so, even India has to suffer from its bad effects. Nepal has got a great fear of foreign influence of politics and it is comprehended only in the higher level of politics. It is not realized in the lower levels of politics and it is beyond the understanding of grass root level people. So, it is necessary to make understand all levels of people as much as possible.
RAW'S Role in Nepal
Research Analysis Wing, RAW, of India has played dominating and determining role to change the political condition of Nepal. Almost all political events of Nepal are directly or indirectly concerned with the role of RAW. The various blockades and Maoist's movement as well as dethrone of the king are the outcome of the RAW's influence and report. The expression of RAW's officer, Jeev reveals:
`You are right. I have actually come to seek your help in over throwing the king, Jeev said calmly. Aryal stared at him. 'Why?' with each passing day, he is becoming more and more ruthless in suppressing opposition to his regime by employing the brute force of the Royal Nepalese Army and the Police. He is using a discredited Panchayati government, which he foisted on Nepal and filled with his loyalists, cronies and henchmen, to treat you as slaves and seems adamant on not allowing any democratic institution to take root in your country. (Bhushan 49)
This extract shows that Jeev is RAW's officer and Aryal is a Maoist leader meeting in secret in eastern part of Nepal, around Jogbani near Biratnagar in Morang district. The Maoist leader has received both moral as well as economic support from the officer of the RAW to overthrow the king and to restore the democracy in Nepal. The aim of RAW was to overthrow the king and its institution to form weak nationalistic condition. RAW's officer, Jeev was asked financial support by the leaders of Maoist for the revolution as expressed:
It is essential to have adequate resources for any political movement to succeed. And, to make those resources available to you, the Agency will need to have a government in Delhi that is publicly committed to supporting your cause; Jeev paused to gauge Govinda's reaction to his offer of financial support. (Bhushan 66)
In this extract, Jeev is an officer of Raw and Govinda is leader of Maoist movement. When Jeev met with Govinda to discuss about the movement, Govinda demanded the financial support from RAW and Jeev managed seventy five thousand rupees support and this amount got invested in upgrading the skill of Maoist fighters known as PLA- People's Liberation Army. Jeev went on meeting time and again with Maoist's leader, Kamal Aryal and it is expressed:
Kamal Aryal joined then after a few minutes. He shook Jeev's hand vigorously and thanked him for coming all the way from Delhi to see him . . . . You may be interested in knowing what I have done with your money. Unlike your friends in the Nepali Congress, the Rastriya Prajatantra Party and the Nepal Sadbhavana Party who spend money on building their personal fortunes, I have invested your money in preparing our cadre to organize uprisings in places where we are strong and where we can put up a though fight against the administration, Aryal said. (Bhusan 75)
It draws the picture how the officers of the RAW directly and indirectly in connection with the Maoist's political movement against the political stability and the established situation of monarchy of Nepal. Financial support and blockades are the tools of bringing political change and influence from RAW and the government of India in Nepal. "I have brought a gift for you; Jeev said and handed over an envelope containing service money (Bhushan 75)". The RAW has got greater investment for the political change and greater political influence including macro and micro management in Nepal. The fear of political influence of India has to be taken properly on time. This fear must be taken in a positive way and it must be handled skillfully to address the political issue with confidence from the diplomatic level. Diplomacy is the only one tool of solution of any political issue either it is the powerful or the powerless nations in the world. When political diplomacy fails, then the fear becomes greater and more devastating one than anything else to preserve the sovereignty and the nationality. In this case, it can invite even the conflict and the war between two nations to the world war. So fear is to be addressed on time positively.
Types of Fear
Fear has multiple types. Various types of fear are found in every society and culture. Among them, three kinds of fears are well-known-high fear, medium fear and low fear. Among these three kinds of fears, medium fear is the only one way of getting successful in life. High or extreme fear and low fear tend to be harmful and destructive in practical life. Fear is not bad but it is a light of opening the darkness. Fear helps to know the right and wrong and to take the decision. Fear is an alert indicator as expressed:
Fear as an alert indicator too. It works to alert us to any disaster, accident or danger before it happens to us. When people are alert earlier, they will avoid possible accidents or incidents and will minimize the possibilities. If work is done cautiously for the present, the future, family, friends, society and country, then peaceful emancipation is possible. Whatever difficulties they are, fear always works to alert us. (Subba 16)
Fear of political influence of other nations can function as an alert indicator. If the national political leans become alert with the fear of political influence of other nations, then they act cautiously to prevent the unnecessary outside political influence and to balance the relationship between the neighboring nations- India and China and even to maintain good relationship with other nations of the globe. The political influence of other nations in Nepal must not be taken in a negative form but it must be taken in positive way for the solution of political issue of Nepal. It is essential to invest the role of diplomacy to make the solidarity of nationality and sovereignty high forever and ever. The more positively fear becomes activated, the better it tends to be for the nation and the public. The next task of the government is also to develop the nation and make the people contented with the government and the nation because the strength of the nation is the moral support of its citizens.
The Fear in Major Political Role of Delhi
When Nepal remains in a critical condition from the point of view of politics, then the capital of India, Delhi plays the significant role to bring the solution of the issues. No solution has come out without the role of Delhi yet. It has got a historical evidence of Delhi's role in the solution of the political issues in Nepal from the Rana's regime to the present day of 2015 when new constitution is declared.
Nepal got involved in Maoist Civil war ten years from 2052 B .S. to 2062 B. S. The conflict between the Maoist and the Nepal government did not come to an end until the 12 points agreement between the agitating seven parties and the Maoist party in Delhi. It is the role of Delhi to bring these agitating seven parties and the Maoist party in one place to fight jointly against the autocratic monarchy and to establish people's democracy. In 22th November 2005, this 12 points agreement was made in Delhi. The gist of 12 points agreement is:
12 point understanding reached between the seven political parties and Nepal communist party (Maoists). The struggle between absolute monarchy and democracy running for a long time in Nepal has now been reached in a very grave and new term. It has become the need of today to establish peace by resolving the 10 year old armed conflict through a forward looking political outlet. Therefore, it has become an inevitable need to implement the concept of full democracy through a forward looking restructuring of the state to resolve the problems related to class caste, gender, region and so on of all sectors including the political, economic, social and cultural, by bringing the autocratic monarchy to an end establishing full democracy. We hereby disclose that in the existence of aforesaid context and reference in the country the following understanding has been reached between the seven political parties within the parliament and the CPN (Maoists) through holding talks in different manners. (pdf 1)
This 12 point agreement has got the end of 10 years civil war in Nepal. The country has got the new constitution with new formation of the nation's structure of seven states with the principle of Republic but the nation has not taken any step to fulfill the needs and dreams of the people. The country has not become able to come out of the corruption and nor has it become successful to balance the neighbors confidently. The nation faced the blockade from India with the demand of Terai- based political parties. Now it is the time of all political parties to come one place to make the nation strong and capable enough. All the political parties must come above their party politics for the sake of the nation and the people. Otherwise, the fear of foreign influence in the politics of Nepal continues and nobody knows what happens when in the nation.
Jawaharlal Nehru's Role
Jawaharlal Nehru, the most powerful Prime Minister of India, acted the role of mediator in the political issue of Nepal in 2007 B.S. The late king Tribhuwan was in support of democracy and he joined with people's revolution led by the political party, Nepali Congress. It was the revolt against the Rana regime. When the king Tribhuwan fled to Delhi, then the agreement took place in between the revolutionary party, Nepali Congress, the King, Tribhuwan and the Rana in Delhi in 2007 B.S.
The main points of Delhi agreements are:
- Constitution to be introduced by the constituent Assembly voted by the citizens.
- Formation of an interim government with 10 members (5 from Nepali Congress and 5 from Ranas)
- Tribhuwan shall be king of Nepal, and all rights be taken from the Ranas and given to the king.
- All the political prisoners to be freed.
- All arms and weapons used in the revolution to be submitted to the government and the revolution to be stopped immediately.
These agreements became the beginning step of democracy in Nepal but it was the then Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru who acted as a mediator and the Delhi agreement was formed between Rana regime, Nepali congress and the king Tribhuwan on 1st Falgun, 2007 B.S. Then The King Tribhuwan returned to Nepal on 4th Falgun and democracy was declared on 7th Falgun, 2007 B.S. Jawaharlal Nehru's role is the most significant in this Delhi agreement. So, the fear in political influence of Delhi is not a new one but it has got a long history in the politics and the democracy of Nepal.
Nepal and India has got unique neighborhood relationship in compare to other nations since people have got free entry and free exit access exists in the boarders. People do not need to use passport and visa. 1950's treaty between the government of India and the government of Nepal contains 10 articles and the article no 5 and 8 are politically influencing to Nepal. These two articles create fear. These two articles state:
The government of Nepal shall be free to import, from or through the territory of India, arms, ammunition or warlike material and equipment necessary for the security of Nepal. The procedure for giving effect to this arrangement shall be worked out by the two governments acting in consultation.
So far as matters dealt with here in are concerned, this treaty cancels all previous treaties, agreements, and engagements entered into on behalf of India between the British Government and the Government of Nepal. (WIKIPEDIA)
It is a bilateral treaty of peace and friendship but The Government of Nepal is free to import arms and warlike material and necessary equipment through the territory of India for the security of Nepal. It indicates that Nepal has not got the rights to import the warlike security materials to import out of India. The article no 8 signifies that all the agreements between British Government and the Government of Nepal is canceled after this treaty. So, it draws the fear that this treaty is unequal.
Treaty of Sugauli
Treaty of Sugauli was reached due to the fear of East India Company's political power and its influence in Nepal. This treaty was done on 2nd December 1815. "The treaty that established the boundary line of Nepal, was signed on 2nd December 1815 and ratified by 4th March 1816 between the East India company and the King of Nepal following the Anglo-Nepalese war of 1814-16" (WIKIPEDIA). This treaty was a treaty of fear and Nepal wanted to be safe from the possible danger and risk. It was not a treaty in favor of Nepal. The treaty contains 9 points but in its gist Nepal had to lose its own territory. It states:
The signatory for Nepal was Raj Guru Gajraj Mishra acided by Chandra Sekher Upadhaya, the signatory for the company was Lieutenant Colonel Paris Bradshaw. The treaty called for territorial concessions in which some of the territories controlled by Nepal would be given to British India, the establishment of British representative in Kathmandu, and allowed Britain to recruit Gurkhas for military service. Nepal also lost the right to employ any American or European Employee in its service (earlier several French commanders had been deployed to train the Nepali army) (WIKIPEDIA)
East India Company governing in India realized the strength of Gorkha soldiers and the Nepalese soldiers got recruited in British Army from the time of the Treaty of Sugauli but this treaty canceled the European and American military training support to Nepal Army. It is another fear of Britain from other super-power nations.
Divya Upadesh-Wise saying
The Divya Upadesh of the late king, Prithivi Narayan Shah, the founder of Nepal has become still useful and meaningful even today. The political leaders or whoever are there to rule the nation must keep the Divya Upadesh of the king Prithivi Narayan Shah to keep the nation free from the political fear of other nations. The Divya Upadesh states:
The Divya Upadesh maintains that "soldiers are the very marrow of the king" and if insurrections are to be avoided the king must do well with the army and the peasants. Prithivi Narayan has spent many words advising on the strategic matters of the unified country. Despite his claim of military prowess, he warns that "this country is like a ground between two rocks. In terms of regional neighbours, Prithivi Narayan advises to maintain a treaty of friendship with the emperor of China. Further, he emphasizes the significance of a treaty of friendship with the emperor of the southern sea (the British Company in Hindustan). (WIKIPEDIA)
In Divya Upadesh, Prithivi Narayan Shah has given the guideline of leading the country without any conflict between the two neighboring countries- China and India. "This country is like a ground between two rocks" is the right expression to be conscious about the geopolitics of Nepal. So, the treaty of friendship in both neighboring nations is inevitable even today and in the days ahead. When the statesmen or the politicians or the pilot of the nation or the drivers of the nation go beyond the Divya Upadesh of the Late King Prithivi Narayan Shah, then the fear in politics terns out to be true. It is necessary to balance the friendly relationship between the two nations-China and India.
Fear in politics from the influence of other nations is common both in powerful and powerless nations through out the globe. But the under developing countries like Nepal do have the greater fear in the influence of foreign nations' political dominance. Nepal is in sensitive place from the point of view of geopolitics. Nepal must maintain the balanced position of friendly relationship between India and China. If it is done, then it becomes effective act and the diplomatic policies are to be made accordingly. Then the positive fear becomes as an indicator of making us always alert for the prosperity of the nation.
Bhushan, Amar. Inside Nepal. Harper Collins, India. 2019. Print.
Subba, Desh. Philosophy of Fearism. Xilbris. 2014. Print.
www.google.com. 1950 Indo-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship. Wikipedia. https:/en .m.wikipedia. org>Wikipedia.
www.google.com.https://www.kullabs.com>note-detail. Notes on Revolution of 2007 B.S. and Delhi Agreement/ Grade 10> social studies.
www.google.com. NP_051122, 12 point understanding:pdf.22/11/2005.https:/peacemaker. un. Orgs nepal.
www.google.com. Treaty of Sugauli. https:/en.m.wikipedia.org>Wikipedia.
www.google.com. The Divya Upadesh of Prithivi Narayan Shah/ New Spotlight Magzine. https:/www.spotlightnepal.com>Wikipedia.
Writer:Bhawani Shankar Adhikari
Lecturer in English
Nepal Sanskrit University, Balmeeki Campus, Kathmandu