My study is focused about the use of physically impaired people used
in literary text, basically based on two prolific writers Parijat and
Lain singh Bangdel of Nepal. I have taken ‘Langadako Saathi’ of
Bangdel’s text(novel) and I have tried to picturing the use of
characters by Parijat in her all (9) novels.
My question is that; PPDP are never used as Central Characters that
can be Hero or Villain. They are either, not used or used only in the
sense of suffering or sympathy. So, my claim is; even PPDP have normal
and similar life like the others. I have used PPDP (Partially
Physically Deformed People) instead of disable.
Overview On Perception Of deformity:
PPDP's are always taken as ‘other beings’ by ‘able group.’(It’s
considered by society’s manipulation) but the fact has always been
under defined. They are always taken with the sense of sympathy.
Instead they don’t want any sympathy from ‘able group’ ( i.e.
privilege group); they just want to have ‘Position’ and responsibility
in the existing social situation. Furthermore, the existing social
edifice has always discarded the presence of physically ‘deformed
group’ (even mentally weak). So, the huge group of this community is
seeking their own meaning in today’s context.
Confusion Of Definition Of PPDP:
The privilege community of able group has given a playful meaning in
the word disability. Here in today’s context the marginalized PPDP
group has been defined with complete meaning of inability i.e. this
group of people are generalized as unable to perform daily works and
activities as others do. Although in actual perception this conception
of large able group can’t be considered as totally acceptable, because
even PPDP’s are not exactly disable as they are considered. For
example, one who is blind, can completely be able to perform other
tasks like thinking, imagining, creating, singing etc. Only the eyes
of blind are unable to see visual existence. Again, a person having
cerebral palsy can’t be considered as fully or completely disable as
the majority of society do. For example famous American painter and
writer Christi Brown was victim of cerebral palsy but his ability of
creativity was not hindered. So it’s the same case with Nepali writer
Jhamak Ghimire ; she is also a victim of cerebral palsy; inborn, but
a renown writer of Nepal . Even John Milton, who was blind but he is
respected as greatest poet in English literature. So, my argument is
that even having physical deformity, makes nothing difference in the
creativity of one’s life. For instance, one from Able Group (so
called) person can’t be able to play football as Lionel Messi do, Or
he/she can't run like world’s fastest runner Usain Bolt do. Now, then
how can we consider them as able in this sense? So considering
partially weak person as ‘other being’ or completely disable is
injustice for them.
So this group should be named as Partially Physically Deformed People
(PPDP) because they are able to perform and create other realms of
life. Here, my study is focused with the use of PPDP in literature.
They are always whether used with the sense of sympathetic notion or
they are never been used as normally as able group is used. In one
sense PPDP might have been marginalized (others marginalized it), but
(other) majorities are also marginalized in other realms; like
politics, religion, caste, occupation, nation, education etc. So, I
have taken novel written by Lain Singh Bangdel, Langadako Sathi’ . In
this novel a PPDP is shown as character of discarded human being. Who
is alone, weak, poor, alienated, beggar and always been teased by
children. There is no one to love him, and take care of him. He has no
home and not even good food to eat or good attire. He has got a street
dog, who performs the role of caretaker, lover and friend of this
character. Finally he dies a meaningless death. Even though, he is a
protagonist of this short novel (Langadako Sathi ), he has been
presented as character to be sympathized.
Now I want to talk about one of the main and leading characters of
Nepali literature (and a major Nepali female Writer ); Parijaat who
has written (9 novels) in her life . She who was also a PPDP but she
even couldn’t produce the protagonist or villain of this group, why?
Was she afraid ? Or was she predominated by the thoughts of able
My study is about ‘pre-occupied mentality’ made upon ‘PPDP.’ Bangdel
and Parijat both couldn’t break the wall of pre-occupied mentality.
That’s why Bangdel showed his character as sympathetic only; instead
the character of Bangdel could have fought against existing society
and got his position. And Parijat couldn’t show any PPDP as her
central character even though her novels are based upon ‘oppressed’
and ‘marginalized’ but she missed ‘PPDP’. In her novel ‘Parkhal Bhitra
Ra Bahira’. There is a revolutionary protagonist ‘Jwala’ who is not
PPDP. Does it mean that, revolution can only be obtained by one’s
Meaning Of Hero And Use Of PPDP In Literature:
In my perception the meaning of hero has been made myth i.e. they
should be good looking, strong and physically fit. So, it’s hard to
find any PPDP as a leading character or hero of literary works. That
is why; Bangdel only used a character to be sympathized. Who is unable
to fight against existing structure of the society and change his pace
Even Parijaat being member of PPDP, she couldn’t present a character
who could lead the story of her novels (anyone out of nine) to the
end. Even though she was member of same group, she couldn’t catch the
sentiment of very community. If she had dared to use such a characters
in her any novels she could have caught the true sentiment and
meaning, better than Bangdel did in his novel ‘Langadako saathi.’
So, what is the actual entity should a person has to be a hero? Should
he/she be able one or superhuman like Hercules? So my question is that;
can’t even a ‘PPDP’ be a leading character of any literary texts (but not
as in the work of Bangdel). I consider hero as very normal person
(that can be any one, even PPDP) who can perform super task by the
help one’s powerful will-power. So, even PPDP can be presented in
literary works as a leading character (can even be antagonist) of that
very text. The character can be rapist, smuggler, business man, lover,
rebellion, freedom fighter, labourer etc. But consideration can be
done in the presentation of that leading character in the ‘text’. So,
time has come to change the ‘flow’ of using ‘leading character by
doing experimental use of ‘PPDP’ in myriad roles of literature
and other forms of art.
Why partially physically deformed people?
I have not used words like differently able, physically challenged or
any other phrase, instead I am using PPDP in short. I believe that all
other so called able people are also differently able with each
others, they can't perform any task equally if they are compared;
though they are not considered differently able. In-such-a way all of
these people are also physically challenged because they have
different physical capacity and weakness as I showed example of Messi
and Bolt above.
Therefore, if these people are not considered differently able or
physically challenged, then considering PPDP as such using these sorts
of words is injustice.
PPDP is a short form of Partially Physically Deformed people, which
argues that only a part or more are weak or deformed but other his/her
body parts and life is normal as others do. For instances, if a person
can't see, his only capacity of eyes are deformed not other abilities
and if someone do not have leg, then only her that part is weak. So
PPDP argues that only a part or more of a body are deformed while all
aspects of such people are as normal as others (able group) do. If a
person is considered weak or unable on the basis of such partial
deformity then it would be a big injustice to them.
What is PPDP writing?
PPDP writing puts forward the idea about use of these people as
leading characters (protagonist or antagonist) in literary texts. This
writing denies all established thoughts upon being a central
characters in writings. He/she should not only be presented as a
character of sympathy in this writing. So they can be in any
conditions, like teaching in class room or fighting in the street;
killing someone or rescuing. This writing just gives an introduction
about being a PPDP though it never supports presenting them as
sympathetic, and this writing never considers their lives as
meaningless. Furthermore, this writing provides a way out to use PPDP
in other form of art like acting.